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Sketch Recognition Lab
Director: Dr. Tracy Anne Hammond

SRL Book Chapters


 


Book Chapters


PublicationImage 2016 Valentine,Stephanie; Conrad, Hannah; Oduola, Cassandra; Hammond, Tracy. "WIPTTE: 2015 High School Contest." Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education. Chapter 25. Human-Computer Interaction Series. Ed. T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler. Switzerland: Springer, 2016. 345-363 pages. ISBN: 978-3-319-31193-7. 10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_25
Show Abstract:

The WIPTTE High School Contest was held on the first day of the WIPTTE conference on the Microsoft Campus in Redmond, Washington. The High School Contest is an annual event originating in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Texas A&M University, which extended into the WIPTTE conference. 2015 marked the second year of the WIPTTE High School Contest. During the contest, high school students participate in an intense day of brainstorming, design, prototyping, and presentation to compete against top schools across the United States. Nineteen high school and middle school students combined into four teams from two different schools: Renton Prep from Renton, WA, and University Prep from Seattle, WA. The high school students participated in many elements of WIPTTE throughout the Contest, including watching and commenting on the opening keynotes and presenting for the entire WIPTTE audience. Additionally, many students were able to participate in all three days of the conference. The students were active and engaged in the WIPTTE community, particularly while providing valuable feedback during the You-Try-It sessions.

Show BibTex

@incollection{stephanievalentinehannahconradcassandraoduolatracyhammond2016Chapter,
author = {Valentine,Stephanie; Conrad, Hannah; Oduola, Cassandra; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {WIPTTE: 2015 High School Contest},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_25},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_25} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 345-363. }
}
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PublicationImage 2016 Valentine, Stephanie; Leyva-McMurtry, Angelica; Borgos-Rodriguez, Katya; Hammond, Tracy. "The Digital Sash: A Sketch-Based Badge System in a Social Network for Children." Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education. Chapter 12. Human-Computer Interaction Series. Ed. T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler. Switzerland: Springer, 2016. 179-181 pages. ISBN: 978-3-319-31193-7. 10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_12
Show Abstract:

In this chapter, we present a sketch-based reward system for promoting the practice of digital citizenship skills within our custom social network for children aged 7 to 12 years. This badge system prompts budding social networkers to complete fun, creative sketching activities and short writing tasks. Because we have deployed our custom social network (KidGab) within our local Girl Scouts Council, our badge system takes the form of a digital Girl Scout sash. In this work, we discuss the badges that prompted the most participation from our users and provide example responses for each. Finally, we consider methods in which our system and results might be generalized to suit non-scouting populations of children such as classrooms, clubs, and sports teams.

Show BibTex

@incollection{stephanievalentineangelicaleyvamcmurtrykatyaborgostracyhammond2016Chapter,
author = {Valentine, Stephanie; Leyva-McMurtry, Angelica; Borgos-Rodriguez, Katya; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {The Digital Sash: A Sketch-Based Badge System in a Social Network for Children},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_12},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_12} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 179-181. }
}
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PublicationImage 2016 Lara-Garduno, Raniero; Leslie, Nancy; Hammond, Tracy . "SmartStrokes: Digitizing Paper-Based Neuropsychological Tests." Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education. Chapter 11. Human-Computer Interaction Series. Ed. T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler. Switzerland: Springer, 2016. 163-175 pages. ISBN: 978-3-319-31193-7. 10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_11
Show Abstract:

Clinical neuropsychologists develop comprehensive behavioral profiles on their patients primarily by using paper-and-pencil test stimuli. Despite these tests being significantly cheaper and faster than complex procedures such as MRI scans, multiple drawbacks remain. Constructing these behavioral profiles can take upwards of six hours to fully complete, and the analysis of the sketches from these pencil-and-paper tests is still largely subjective and qualitative. We developed SmartStrokes, a testing suite that implements digital versions of common clinical neuropsychology pencil-and-paper tests, with the purpose of helping to automate and analyze patient sketches using the principles of sketch recognition.

Show BibTex

@incollection{ranierolaragardunotracyhammond2016Chapter,
author = {Lara-Garduno, Raniero; Leslie, Nancy; Hammond, Tracy },
title = {SmartStrokes: Digitizing Paper-Based Neuropsychological Tests},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_11},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_11} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 163-175. }
}
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PublicationImage 2016 Barreto, Laura; Taele, Paul; Hammond, Tracy. "A Stylus-Driven Intelligent Tutoring System for Music Education Instruction." Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education. Chapter 10. Human-Computer Interaction Series. Ed. T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler. Switzerland: Springer, 2016. 141-161 pages. ISBN: 978-3-319-31193-7. 10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_10
Show Abstract:

Inspiring musicians and non-musician hobbyists alike can enjoy various benefits from learning music theory beyond its importance in performing music itself. Such reasons include developing their mathematical abilities, improving their reading comprehension, expanding their memory capabilities, better appreciating music that they listen to, and so on. However, current resources that are available for teaching music theory to students present their own inherent disadvantages. Specifically, traditional music theory classroom centers assume that students already have existing musical knowledge, existing self-study paper-based materials lack immediate feedback, while emerging educational apps either lack stylus-based interaction or intelligent feedback appropriate for novice students. In this paper, we introduce a stylus-driven intelligent tutoring system for music education instruction that aims to combine the benefits while addressing the limitations of existing instructional resources for teaching music theory. Our proposed system provides an accessible educational application with an intelligent sketch user interface that is designed for novice students interested in learning music theory through a series of interactive music composition lessons and quizzes. Following the completion of a student’s composed solution to a prompted music theory question, our system first leverages appropriate sketch and gesture recognition techniques to automatically understand the student’s input, and then generates feedback and assessment of the student’s input that emulates those from a music theory instructor. From our evaluations, we demonstrate that not only did our system automatically understood students’ composed solutions with reasonable accuracy, but also that novice students were able to successfully grasp introductory music theory concepts from a single session using our system.

Show BibTex

@incollection{laurabarretopaultaeletracyhammond2016Chapter,
author = {Barreto, Laura; Taele, Paul; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {A Stylus-Driven Intelligent Tutoring System for Music Education Instruction},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_10},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_10} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 141-161. }
}
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PublicationImage 2016 Taele, Paul; Hammond, Tracy. "An intelligent Sketch-Based Educational Interface for Learning ComplexWritten east Asian Phonetic Symbols." Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education. Chapter 9. Human-Computer Interaction Series. Ed. T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler. Switzerland: Springer, 2016. 129-140 pages. ISBN: 978-3-319-31193-7. 10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_9
Show Abstract:

Literacy in written phonetic symbols for East Asian languages is important but challenging for novice language students with only English language fluency, but pedagogical approaches such as rote writing practice and written technique have successfully assisted students towards written mastery. Researchers and developers are also adapting these approaches into intelligent educational apps for students to exploit interactive computing technologies for learning written East Asian language phonetic symbols, whether they are full-time students in K12 or higher education enrolled in conventional classrooms or non-traditional students studying the subject as a passionate interest. However, related pen and touch educational computing apps for sketching practice of East Asian language phonetic symbols provide limited assessment and flexibility of students’ input and sketching style, while related recognition systems either focus more on expert users’ writing styles or cannot provide assessment for more complex phonetic symbols. In this article, we describe our preliminary work on an intelligent sketch-based educational interface developed specifically for assessing students’ sketched input of complex East Asian language phonetic symbols. The interface system relies on template matching from expert users’ sketched training data and various heuristics for assessing the visual structure and technical correctness of students’ more complex written phonetic symbols. From our evaluations of separate sketching data from both novice and expert writers, we were able to achieve reasonably robust performance for both visual structure and technical correctness of our workbook interface for complex written East Asian language phonetic symbols.

Show BibTex

@incollection{paultaeletracyhammond2016Chapter,
author = {Taele, Paul; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {An intelligent Sketch-Based Educational Interface for Learning ComplexWritten east Asian Phonetic Symbols},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_9},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_9} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 129-140. }
}
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PublicationImage 2016 Williford, Blake; Taele, Paul; Nelligan, Trevor; Li, Wayne; Linsey, Julie; Hammond, Tracy . "PerSketchTivity: an intelligent pen-based educational application for design sketching instruction." Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education. Chapter 8. Human-Computer Interaction Series. Ed. T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler. Switzerland: Springer, 2016. 115-127 pages. ISBN: 978-3-319-31193-7. 10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_8
Show Abstract:

Design sketching is an important and versatile skill for engineering students to master in order to translate their design thoughts effectively onto a visual medium, whether it is to proficiently produce hand-drawn sketches onto paper, seamlessly interact with intelligent sketch-based modeling interfaces, or reap the various educational benefits associated with drawing. Traditional instructional approaches for teaching design sketching are frequently constrained by the availability of experienced human instructors or the lack of supervised learning from self-practice, while relevant intelligent educational applications for sketch instruction have focused more on assessing users’ art drawings or cognitive developmental progress. We introduce PerSketchTivity, an intelligent pen-based computing educational application that not only teaches engineering students how to hone and practice their design sketching skills through stylus-and-touchscreen interaction, but also aiding their motivation and self-regulated learning through real-time feedback. From the qualitative results of our usability tests of our application from eight university student participants of varying skill levels and disciplines, we observed that participants well-rated the usability of the application while also providing valuable feedback to improve the application even further.

Show BibTex

@incollection{blakewillifordpaultaeletrevornelliganwaynelijulielinseytracyhammond2016Chapter,
author = {Williford, Blake; Taele, Paul; Nelligan, Trevor; Li, Wayne; Linsey, Julie; Hammond, Tracy },
title = {PerSketchTivity: an intelligent pen-based educational application for design sketching instruction},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_8},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_8} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 115-127. }
}
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PublicationImage 2016 Polsley, Seth; Ray, Jaideep; Nelligan, Trevor; Helms, Michael; Linsey, Julie; Hammond, Tracy. "Leveraging Trends in Student Interaction to Enhance the Effectiveness of Sketch-Based Educational Software." Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education. Chapter 7. Human-Computer Interaction Series. Ed. T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler. Switzerland: Springer, 2016. 103-114 pages. ISBN: 978-3-319-31193-7. 10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_7
Show Abstract:

With the rapid adoption of software-based learning in classrooms, it is increasingly important to design more intelligent educational software, a goal of the emerging field of educational data mining. In this work, we analyze student activities from using a learning tool for engineers, Mechanix, in order to find trends that may be used to make the software a better tutor, combining its natural, sketch-based input with intelligent, experience-based feedback. We see a significant correlation between student performance and the amount of time they work on a problem before submitting; students who attempt to “game” the system by submitting their results too often perform worse than those who work longer (p< 0.05). We also found significance in the number of times a student attempted a problem before moving on, with a strong correlation between being willing to switch among problems and better performance (p< 0.05). Overall, we find that student trends like these could be paired with machine learning techniques to make more intelligent educational tools.

Show BibTex

@incollection{sethpolsleyjaideepraytrevornelliganmichaelhelmsjulielinseytracyhammond2016Chapter,
author = {Polsley, Seth; Ray, Jaideep; Nelligan, Trevor; Helms, Michael; Linsey, Julie; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {Leveraging Trends in Student Interaction to Enhance the Effectiveness of Sketch-Based Educational Software},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_7},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_7} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 103-114. }
}
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PublicationImage 2016 Hammond, Tracy; Adler, Aaron; and Valentine, Stephanie. "Introduction." Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education. Chapter 1. Human-Computer Interaction Series. Ed. T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler. Switzerland: Springer, 2016. 3--15 pages. ISBN: 978-3-319-31193-7. 10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_1
Show Abstract:

Derived from contributions to the Workshop on Pen and Touch Technology on Education (WIPTTE) in 2015, this edited volume highlights recent developments for pen and tablet research within the education system with a particular focus on hardware and software developments, comprising the perspectives of teachers, school and university administrators, and researchers for educators at every level. Split into six distinct parts, the book explores topics like how classrooms are increasingly using sketch-based videos, created by teachers and students alike, and how the teaching of key skills such as literacy, languages, math, and art via pen and touch technologies within the classroom are leading to improvements in engagement, learning, and retention levels amongst students. Future perspectives of digital learning, as envisioned by current high school students, are also explored.

Show BibTex

@incollection{tracyhammondaaronadlerstephanievalentine2016Chapter,
author = {Hammond, Tracy; Adler, Aaron; and Valentine, Stephanie},
title = {Introduction},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_1},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_1} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 3--15. }
}
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PublicationImage 2015 Raymond, Dwayne; Liew, Jeffrey; Hammond, Tracy. "A Vision for Education: Transforming How Formal Systems are Taught within Mass Lecture by useing Pen Technology to Create a Personalized Learning Environment." The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education. Chapter 37. Human-Computer Interaction Series. Ed. T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, and M. Payton. Switzerland: Springer, 2015. 355-364 pages. ISBN: 978-3-319-15594-4. 10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_37
Show Abstract:

This work-in-progress outlines both a key opportunity to understand the loss of STEM students as well as our vision for a transformative learning tool in development called Logic Sketch. Logic Sketch will use pen technology to provide a personal learning experience for every student in a mass lecture. It will monitor each student’s progress, and offer supplementary instruction and exercises that are specifically tailored to individual needs. By instilling a deeper understanding of how to work with formal systems, we expect to reduce math anxiety. This may aid in overcoming the problem of the underrepresented majority: the demographic that constitutes the majority of university students (females and non-white males) is underrepresented in STEM disciplines. The target demographic is over represented in mass lectures on logic. Thus, we are in a position to better understand a number of ill understood factors such as the extent to which math anxiety inhibits a student’s willingness to pursue a STEM degree.

Show BibTex

@incollection{dwayneraymondjeffreyliewtracyhammond2015Chapter,
author = {Raymond, Dwayne; Liew, Jeffrey; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {A Vision for Education: Transforming How Formal Systems are Taught within Mass Lecture by useing Pen Technology to Create a Personalized Learning Environment},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, and M. Payton},
booktitle = {The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2015},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_37},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-15594-4},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_37} isbn=978-3-319-15594-4 pages 355-364. }
}
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PublicationImage 2015 Taele, Paul; Hammond, Tracy. "Enhancing Instruction of Written East Asian Languages with Sketch Recognition-Based Intelligent Language Workbook Interfaces." The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education. Chapter 13. Human-Computer Interaction Series. Ed. T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, and M. Payton. Switzerland: Springer, 2015. 119-126 pages. ISBN: 978-3-319-15594-4. 10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_12
Show Abstract:

For American higher education students studying one of the major East Asian languages in Chinese, Japanese, and Korean (CJK) as a second language, one of the major challenges that students face is the mastery of the various written scripts due to those languages’ vast contrasts from written English. Conventional pedagogical resources for written CJK languages frequently rely on language instructors, who provide in-class demonstrations of the written scripts and real-time assessment of their students’ written input: paper workbooks, which offer guided instructional drills and supplementary knowledge on the written component; and practice sheets, which enable students to absorb components of the written scripts through repetitious writing practice. Unfortunately, these techniques also present their own inherent disadvantages: language instructors are constrained by time in teaching the written components to students for typical classroom sizes, workbooks are static instructional materials that lack real-time intelligent feedback and assessment, and practice sheets result in monotonous practice to students and are vulnerable to students erroneously practicing potential mistakes repeatedly if left unsupervised. In this paper, we describe our work behind “intelligent language workbook” interfaces, which combine the benefits of stylus-driven tablet devices and state-of-the-art sketch recognition algorithms for developing intelligent computer-assisted instructional interfaces catered towards written CJK language instruction. We evaluated our interfaces on their capabilities to provide instructor-emulated feedback and assessment on the visual structure and writing technique of users’ written input for two distinct written scripts, and our findings demonstrate strong results for supporting the incorporation of educational applications supporting written CJK instruction.

Show BibTex

@incollection{paultaeletracyhammond2015Chapter,
author = {Taele, Paul; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {Enhancing Instruction of Written East Asian Languages with Sketch Recognition-Based Intelligent Language Workbook Interfaces},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, and M. Payton},
booktitle = {The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2015},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_12},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-15594-4},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_12} isbn=978-3-319-15594-4 pages 119-126. }
}
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PublicationImage 2015 Valentine, Stephanie; Lara-Garduno, Raniero; Linsey, Julie; Hammond, Tracy. "Mechanix: A Sketch-Based Tutoring System that Automatically Corrects Hand-Sketched Statics Homework." The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education. Chapter 9. Human-Computer Interaction Series. Ed. T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, and M. Payton. Switzerland: Springer, 2015. 91-103 pages. ISBN: 978-3-319-15594-4. 10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_9
Show Abstract:

With the rise in classroom populations—in both physical classrooms and online learning environments such as massively open online courses—instructors are struggling to provide relevant and personalized feedback on student work. As a result, many instructors choose to structure their homework assignments and assessments via multiple-choice questions or other more automatable techniques, rather than assign complete problems and diagrams. In this work, we aim to provide a new solution to the instructors of introductory engineering courses. We leveraged the power of sketch-recognition and artificial intelligence to create Mechanix, a sketch-based system that tutors students through drawing and solving freebody diagrams. Mechanix can support problems that have only a single answer, as well as questions for which many answers might apply (i.e. design this vs. solve this). Over the last 3 years, besides deploying Mechanix in multiple classrooms at three different universities, we have presented the system to over 150 high school and university teachers, where they themselves stepped through the problems as a student would. This paper summarizes the system that was tested by multiple educators during the 2012 ASEE Workshop, the 2014 TAMU Teacher’s Summit, and the You-Try-It Strand during WIPTTE 2014. We found that even physics teachers could use a reminder of the concepts, and by changing our first problem set to be a tutorial of the concepts, the teachers were much happier with the software and able to solve the problems much more quickly.

Show BibTex

@incollection{stephanievalentineranierolaragardunojulielinseytracyhammond2015Chapter,
author = {Valentine, Stephanie; Lara-Garduno, Raniero; Linsey, Julie; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {Mechanix: A Sketch-Based Tutoring System that Automatically Corrects Hand-Sketched Statics Homework},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, and M. Payton},
booktitle = {The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2015},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_9},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-15594-4},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_9} isbn=978-3-319-15594-4 pages 91-103. }
}
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PublicationImage 2015 Hammond, Tracy. "Dialectical Creativity: Sketch-Negate-Create." Studying Visual and Spatial Reasoning for Design Creativity. Chapter 6. Ed. J. Gero. Dordrecht: Springer, 2015. 91-108 pages. ISBN: 978-94-017-9296-7. 10.1007/978-94-017-9297-4_6
Show Abstract:

Dialectical Creativity is the act of formulating a new concept through the original idea (the thesis), developing opposing contradictory ideas (the antithesis), and culminating on a more developed concretized idea that both negates and encompasses both the thesis and the antithesis (the synthesis). Sketching is a fundamental part of ideation. The act of performing ideation with an inherently abstract hand-drawn sketch, complete with messiness, allows the sketcher, through the misinterpretation of their own strokes, to evoke antithetical concepts, enabling the sketcher to quickly develop a creative synthetic idea. In the dialectical process there is a constant tension between creative change and the natural tendency to seek stability. Sketch recognition is the automated understanding of hand drawn diagrams by a computer, and can be used to both enhance creativity and/or idea stability. This paper discusses the Sketch Dialectic and its impact on the field of sketch recognition.

Show BibTex

@incollection{tracyhammond2015Chapter,
author = {Hammond, Tracy},
title = {Dialectical Creativity: Sketch-Negate-Create},
editor = {J. Gero},
booktitle = {Studying Visual and Spatial Reasoning for Design Creativity},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2015},
address = {Dordrecht},
doi = {10.1007/978-94-017-9297-4_6},
isbn={978-94-017-9296-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-94-017-9297-4_6} isbn=978-94-017-9296-7 pages 91-108. }
}
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PublicationImage 2015 Kim, Hong-Hoe; Valentine, Stephanie; Taele, Paul; Hammond, Tracy. "EasySketch: A Sketch-Based Fine Motor Skill Recognizing Educational Interface for Children Emerging Technology Research Strand." The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education. Chapter 4. Human-Computer Interaction Series. Ed. T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, and M. Payton. Switzerland: Springer, 2015. 35-46 pages. ISBN: 978-3-319-15594-4. 10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_4
Show Abstract:

Fine motor skills and executive attentions play a critical role in determining children’s selfregulation. Self-regulation contributes to children’s school readiness. Fine motor skills and executive attentions can be taught through sketching and writing activities. The growing ubiquity of touch-enabled computing devices can enhance children’s sketching ability via sketch-based playful educational applications. From the applications, children can draw sketches and potentially develop their fine motor skills. Unfortunately, those applications do not analyze the maturity of children’s fine motor skills in order to help parents and teachers understand the strengths and weaknesses of a child’s drawing ability. If an intelligent user interface can determine children’s fine motor skills automatically, teachers and parents can assess children’s fine motor skill ability and help children to improve via practicing drawings with touch-enabled devices or pencil and paper. The improvements can also extend to the children’s self-regulation ability and thus their school readiness. In this paper, we present our sketch-based educational application EasySketch. The application teaches children how to draw digits and characters, classifies the sketcher’s level of fine motor skill automatically, and returns feedback corresponding to that result.

Show BibTex

@incollection{honghoekimstephanievalentinepaultaeletracyhammond2015Chapter,
author = {Kim, Hong-Hoe; Valentine, Stephanie; Taele, Paul; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {EasySketch: A Sketch-Based Fine Motor Skill Recognizing Educational Interface for Children Emerging Technology Research Strand},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, and M. Payton},
booktitle = {The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2015},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_4},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-15594-4},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_4} isbn=978-3-319-15594-4 pages 35-46. }
}
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PublicationImage 2015 Hammond, Tracy; Payton, Mark; Adler, Aaron; Valentine, Stephanie. "Introduction." The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education. Chapter 0. Human-Computer Interaction Series. Ed. T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, and M. Payton. Switzerland: Springer, 2015. v-xix pages. ISBN: 978-3-319-15593-7. 10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4
Show Abstract:

This book presents perspectives for and by teachers, school and university administrators and educational researchers regarding the great impact pen and tablet technology can have on classrooms and education and presents three distinctly valuable threads of research: 1) Emerging technologies and cutting-edge software invented by researchers and evaluated through real classroom deployments.2) First-hand perspectives of instructors and administrators who actively implement pen or tablet technologies in their classrooms. 3) Up-and-coming systems that provide insight into the future of pen, touch, and sketch recognition technologies in the classrooms and the curriculums of tomorrow. The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education is an essential read for educators who wish get to grips with ink-based computing and bring their teaching methods into the twenty-first century, as well as for researchers in the areas of education, human-computer interaction and intelligent systems for pedagogical advancement.

Show BibTex

@incollection{tracyhammondmarkpaytonaaronadlerstephanievalentine2015Chapter,
author = {Hammond, Tracy; Payton, Mark; Adler, Aaron; Valentine, Stephanie},
title = {Introduction},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, and M. Payton},
booktitle = {The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2015},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-15593-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4} isbn=978-3-319-15593-7 pages v-xix. }
}
PublicationImagePublicationImagePublicationImage
PublicationImage
 
PublicationImage 2008 Mock, Kenrick; Hammond, Tracy. "From Convertibles to Slates: More Than Just a Notebook." Tablet PCs in K-12 Education: No More Blank Slates. Chapter 1. Ed. M. van Mantgem. ISTE, 2008. 9-32 pages. ISBN: 978-1-56484-241-1.
Show Abstract:


Show BibTex

@incollection{kenrickmocktracyhammond2008Chapter,
author = {Mock, Kenrick; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {From Convertibles to Slates: More Than Just a Notebook},
editor = {M. van Mantgem},
booktitle = {Tablet PCs in K-12 Education: No More Blank Slates},
publisher = {ISTE},
year = {2008},
address = {},
doi = {},
isbn={978-1-56484-241-1},
note = { isbn=978-1-56484-241-1 pages 9-32. }
}
PublicationImagePublicationImage
 





Show All BibTex


@incollection{stephanievalentinehannahconradcassandraoduolatracyhammond2016Chapter,
author = {Valentine,Stephanie; Conrad, Hannah; Oduola, Cassandra; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {WIPTTE: 2015 High School Contest},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_25},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_25} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 345-363. }
}


@incollection{stephanievalentineangelicaleyvamcmurtrykatyaborgostracyhammond2016Chapter,
author = {Valentine, Stephanie; Leyva-McMurtry, Angelica; Borgos-Rodriguez, Katya; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {The Digital Sash: A Sketch-Based Badge System in a Social Network for Children},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_12},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_12} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 179-181. }
}


@incollection{ranierolaragardunotracyhammond2016Chapter,
author = {Lara-Garduno, Raniero; Leslie, Nancy; Hammond, Tracy },
title = {SmartStrokes: Digitizing Paper-Based Neuropsychological Tests},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_11},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_11} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 163-175. }
}


@incollection{laurabarretopaultaeletracyhammond2016Chapter,
author = {Barreto, Laura; Taele, Paul; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {A Stylus-Driven Intelligent Tutoring System for Music Education Instruction},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_10},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_10} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 141-161. }
}


@incollection{paultaeletracyhammond2016Chapter,
author = {Taele, Paul; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {An intelligent Sketch-Based Educational Interface for Learning ComplexWritten east Asian Phonetic Symbols},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_9},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_9} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 129-140. }
}


@incollection{blakewillifordpaultaeletrevornelliganwaynelijulielinseytracyhammond2016Chapter,
author = {Williford, Blake; Taele, Paul; Nelligan, Trevor; Li, Wayne; Linsey, Julie; Hammond, Tracy },
title = {PerSketchTivity: an intelligent pen-based educational application for design sketching instruction},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_8},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_8} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 115-127. }
}


@incollection{sethpolsleyjaideepraytrevornelliganmichaelhelmsjulielinseytracyhammond2016Chapter,
author = {Polsley, Seth; Ray, Jaideep; Nelligan, Trevor; Helms, Michael; Linsey, Julie; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {Leveraging Trends in Student Interaction to Enhance the Effectiveness of Sketch-Based Educational Software},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_7},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_7} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 103-114. }
}


@incollection{tracyhammondaaronadlerstephanievalentine2016Chapter,
author = {Hammond, Tracy; Adler, Aaron; and Valentine, Stephanie},
title = {Introduction},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler},
booktitle = {Revolutionizing Education with Digital Ink: The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2016},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_1},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-31193-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-31193-7_1} isbn=978-3-319-31193-7 pages 3--15. }
}


@incollection{dwayneraymondjeffreyliewtracyhammond2015Chapter,
author = {Raymond, Dwayne; Liew, Jeffrey; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {A Vision for Education: Transforming How Formal Systems are Taught within Mass Lecture by useing Pen Technology to Create a Personalized Learning Environment},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, and M. Payton},
booktitle = {The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2015},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_37},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-15594-4},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_37} isbn=978-3-319-15594-4 pages 355-364. }
}


@incollection{paultaeletracyhammond2015Chapter,
author = {Taele, Paul; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {Enhancing Instruction of Written East Asian Languages with Sketch Recognition-Based Intelligent Language Workbook Interfaces},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, and M. Payton},
booktitle = {The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2015},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_12},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-15594-4},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_12} isbn=978-3-319-15594-4 pages 119-126. }
}


@incollection{stephanievalentineranierolaragardunojulielinseytracyhammond2015Chapter,
author = {Valentine, Stephanie; Lara-Garduno, Raniero; Linsey, Julie; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {Mechanix: A Sketch-Based Tutoring System that Automatically Corrects Hand-Sketched Statics Homework},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, and M. Payton},
booktitle = {The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2015},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_9},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-15594-4},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_9} isbn=978-3-319-15594-4 pages 91-103. }
}


@incollection{tracyhammond2015Chapter,
author = {Hammond, Tracy},
title = {Dialectical Creativity: Sketch-Negate-Create},
editor = {J. Gero},
booktitle = {Studying Visual and Spatial Reasoning for Design Creativity},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2015},
address = {Dordrecht},
doi = {10.1007/978-94-017-9297-4_6},
isbn={978-94-017-9296-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-94-017-9297-4_6} isbn=978-94-017-9296-7 pages 91-108. }
}


@incollection{honghoekimstephanievalentinepaultaeletracyhammond2015Chapter,
author = {Kim, Hong-Hoe; Valentine, Stephanie; Taele, Paul; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {EasySketch: A Sketch-Based Fine Motor Skill Recognizing Educational Interface for Children Emerging Technology Research Strand},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, and M. Payton},
booktitle = {The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2015},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_4},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-15594-4},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4_4} isbn=978-3-319-15594-4 pages 35-46. }
}


@incollection{tracyhammondmarkpaytonaaronadlerstephanievalentine2015Chapter,
author = {Hammond, Tracy; Payton, Mark; Adler, Aaron; Valentine, Stephanie},
title = {Introduction},
editor = {T. Hammond, S. Valentine, A. Adler, and M. Payton},
booktitle = {The Impact of Pen and Touch Technology on Education},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2015},
address = {Switzerland},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4},
series = {Human-Computer Interaction Series},
isbn={978-3-319-15593-7},
note = { doi=\url{10.1007/978-3-319-15594-4} isbn=978-3-319-15593-7 pages v-xix. }
}


@incollection{kenrickmocktracyhammond2008Chapter,
author = {Mock, Kenrick; Hammond, Tracy},
title = {From Convertibles to Slates: More Than Just a Notebook},
editor = {M. van Mantgem},
booktitle = {Tablet PCs in K-12 Education: No More Blank Slates},
publisher = {ISTE},
year = {2008},
address = {},
doi = {},
isbn={978-1-56484-241-1},
note = { isbn=978-1-56484-241-1 pages 9-32. }
}


Show All Latex Include

\subsection{Book Chapters}

\subsubsection{Book Chapters}
\begin{enumerate}
\item \bibentry{stephanievalentinehannahconradcassandraoduolatracyhammond2016Chapter}
\item \bibentry{stephanievalentineangelicaleyvamcmurtrykatyaborgostracyhammond2016Chapter}
\item \bibentry{ranierolaragardunotracyhammond2016Chapter}
\item \bibentry{laurabarretopaultaeletracyhammond2016Chapter}
\item \bibentry{paultaeletracyhammond2016Chapter}
\item \bibentry{blakewillifordpaultaeletrevornelliganwaynelijulielinseytracyhammond2016Chapter}
\item \bibentry{sethpolsleyjaideepraytrevornelliganmichaelhelmsjulielinseytracyhammond2016Chapter}
\item \bibentry{tracyhammondaaronadlerstephanievalentine2016Chapter}
\item \bibentry{dwayneraymondjeffreyliewtracyhammond2015Chapter}
\item \bibentry{paultaeletracyhammond2015Chapter}
\item \bibentry{stephanievalentineranierolaragardunojulielinseytracyhammond2015Chapter}
\item \bibentry{tracyhammond2015Chapter}
\item \bibentry{honghoekimstephanievalentinepaultaeletracyhammond2015Chapter}
\item \bibentry{tracyhammondmarkpaytonaaronadlerstephanievalentine2015Chapter}
\item \bibentry{kenrickmocktracyhammond2008Chapter}
\end{enumerate}